# Classification of groups of prime-square order

From Groupprops

## Contents

## Statement

Let be a prime number. Then there are, up to isomorphism of groups, only two groups of order :

- cyclic group of prime-square order, i.e., the cyclic group of order , denoted or .
- elementary abelian group of prime-square order, i.e., the elementary abelian group of order , denoted and equal to . In the case , this is more commonly called the Klein four-group.

Note that both of these are abelian groups, so in particular we see that any prime-square is an abelianness-forcing number.

For detailed information comparing the two groups side by side, see groups of prime-square order

## Related facts

### Similar classifications

- Classification of Lie rings of prime-square order
- Classification of connected unipotent two-dimensional algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field
- Classification of groups of prime-cube order
- Classification of nilpotent Lie rings of prime-cube order

## Facts used

The table below lists key facts useddirectlyandexplicitlyin the proof. Fact numbers as used in the table may be referenced in the proof. This table neednotlist facts used indirectly, i.e., facts that are used to prove these facts, and it need not list facts used implicitly through assumptions embedded in the choice of terminology and language.

Fact no. | Statement | Steps in the proof where it is used | Qualitative description of how it is used | What does it rely on? | Difficulty level | Other applications |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Prime power order implies not centerless | Step (1) | Eliminates the case of trivial center | class equation of a group | 3 | click here |

2 | Center is normal | Step (2) | Justifies taking the quotient by the center | 0 | click here | |

3 | Cyclic over central implies abelian | Step (2) | Rules out the possibility of a center of order , since the quotient would then be forced to be cyclic | click here | ||

4 | Lagrange's theorem | Steps (2), (3) | Narrows down possibilities for order of center, and allows for computation of order of quotient group | 2 | click here | |

5 | Equivalence of definitions of group of prime order | Step (2) | Show cyclicity of if has order | click here | ||

6 | Structure theorem for finitely generated abelian groups | Classifying the abelian groups | click here |

## Proof

The proof has two parts. First, we show that any group of order must be an abelian group. Then, we use the structure theorem for finitely generated abelian groups to argue that there are only two possibilities.

### Proof that the group must be abelian

This proof uses a tabular format for presentation. Provide feedback on tabular proof formats in a survey (opens in new window/tab) | Learn more about tabular proof formats|View all pages on facts with proofs in tabular format

**Given**: A prime number , a group of order .

**To prove**: is abelian.

**Proof**: Let be the center of . Our goal is to show that .

Step no. | Assertion/construction | Facts used | Given data used | Previous steps used | Explanation |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | is nontrivial | Fact (1) | is nontrivial and its order is a power of a prime. | -- | -- |

2 | The order of cannot be | Facts (2), (3), (4), (5) | has order | -- | [SHOW MORE] |

3 | The order of must be | Fact (4) | has order | Steps (1), (2) | [SHOW MORE] |

4 | , so is abelian | Step (3) | Follows directly. |

### Classification of abelian groups

This follows directly from fact (6) -- the group must be a direct product of cyclic groups, giving precisely the two possibilities mentioned.