# Derived subgroup not is local powering-invariant

This article gives the statement, and possibly proof, of the fact that for a group, the subgroup obtained by applying a given subgroup-defining function (i.e., derived subgroup) does not always satisfy a particular subgroup property (i.e., local powering-invariant subgroup)
View subgroup property satisfactions for subgroup-defining functions $|$ View subgroup property dissatisfactions for subgroup-defining functions

## Statement

It is possible to have a group $G$ such that the derived subgroup $[G,G]$ is not a local powering-invariant subgroup of $G$. Specifically, it is possible that there exists an element $h \in [G,G]$ and a natural number $n$ such that there exists a unique element $u \in G$ satisfying $u^n = h$, and despite this, $u \notin H$.

We can choose $G$ to be a metacyclic group. We could also choose $G$ to be a finitely generated nilpotent group, and in fact an example of a finitely generated group of nilpotency class two.

## Proof

### Example of the infinite dihedral group (metacyclic example)

Further information: infinite dihedral group

Consider the infinite dihedral group, given by the presentation: $G := \langle a,x \mid xax^{-1} = a^{-1}, x^2 = e \rangle$

where $e$ denotes the identity of $G$. We find that: $[G,G] = \langle a^2 \rangle$

is an infinite cyclic group.

Now consider the element $h = a^2$. Let $n = 2$. We note that all elements outside $\langle a \rangle$ have order two, hence any element $u$ with $u^2 = h$ must be inside $\langle a \rangle$. The only possibility is thus $u = a$, which is outside $H$. Thus, the element $h = a^2$ has a unique square root in $G$, but this is not in $H$, completing the proof.

### Example of a central product (finitely generated group of nilpotency class two)

Further information: central product of UT(3,Z) and Z identifying center with 2Z

In this example, the generator of the derived subgroup has a unique square root, but this lies outside the derived subgroup (though still in the center). This gives an example where the whole group is a group of nilpotency class two.