Baer correspondence
This article states and (possibly) proves a fact that is true for odd-order p-groups: groups of prime power order where the underlying prime is odd. The statement is false, in general, for groups whose order is a power of two.
View other such facts for p-groups|View other such facts for finite groups
Contents
- 1 Definition
- 2 Baer correspondence up to isomorphism
- 3 Conceptual interpretation
- 4 Induced correspondences on subgroups
- 4.1 Correspondence between subgroups and subrings
- 4.2 Correspondence between normal subgroups and ideals
- 4.3 Correspondence between characteristic subgroups and characteristic subrings (the same as characteristic ideals)
- 4.4 Correspondence between twisted subgroups and subgroups of additive group of Lie ring
- 5 Examples
- 6 Generalizations
- 7 References
Definition
The setup of the correspondence
The Baer correspondence is a special case of the Lazard correspondence, and is a correspondence as follows:
Here:
- A Baer Lie group is a 2-powered (i.e., uniquely 2-divisible) group of nilpotency class at most two
- A Baer Lie ring are 2-powered (i.e., uniquely 2-divisible) Lie ring of nilpotency class at most two
The Baer correspondence preserves underlying sets, i.e., a group and Lie ring that are in Baer correspondence have the same underlying set.
The mapping in the direction from groups to Lie rings will be denoted and the mapping in the direction from Lie rings to groups will be denoted . Explicitly:
- For any Baer Lie group , we define its Baer Lie ring as having the same underlying set and with the Lie ring operations defined using fixed formulas of the group operations.
- For any Baer Lie ring , we define its Baer Lie group as having the same underlying set and with the group operations defined using fixed formulas of the group operations.
The p-group case
For any fixed odd prime number , any p-group is uniquely 2-divisible, and so is any p-Lie ring, so the Baer correspondence restricts to a correspondence:
From group to Lie ring
For proof that this construction works, refer: Proof of Baer construction of Lie ring for Baer Lie group
Suppose is a Baer Lie group, i.e., a 2-powered group of nilpotency class (at most) two. Let denote the commutator of two elements. Note that we can adopt either the left or the right convention -- the two definitions are equal because the group has class two. Denote by the function that takes an element and returns the unique element whose square is that element. If has finite order , then . We give the underlying set of the structure of a Lie ring, denoted or , as follows:
Lie ring operation that we need to define | Definition in terms of the group operations | Further comments |
---|---|---|
Addition, i.e., define for | Since has class two, is central. Since center is local powering-invariant, applied to the prime 2, we get that is central. Thus, it makes sense to divide by this element without specifying whether the division occurs on the left or on the right. The other two definitions are equivalent, but this requires some algebraic manipulation to show. These definitions are significant because they show that the additive group operation is the same as the twisted multiplication defined for generic 2-powered groups. | |
Identity element for addition, denoted . | Same as identity element for group multiplication, denoted or . | This automatically follows from the way addition is defined. |
Additive inverse, i.e., define for . | Same as , i.e., the multiplicative inverse in the group. | This automatically follows from the way addition is defined. |
Lie bracket, i.e., the map in the Lie ring. | Same as the group commutator . |
The claim is that with these operations, acquires the structure of a 2-powered class two Lie ring, i.e., a Baer Lie ring.
From Lie ring to group
For proof that this construction works, refer: Proof of Baer construction of Lie group for Baer Lie ring
Suppose is a Baer Lie ring, i.e., a uniquely 2-divisible class two Lie ring, with addition denoted and Lie bracket denoted . We give the underlying set of the structure of a class two group, denoted or , as follows:
Group operation that we need to define | Definition in terms of the Lie ring operations | Further comments |
---|---|---|
Group multiplication | Since center is local powering-invariant in Lie ring, we obtain that the element is central. | |
Identity element for multiplication | Same as the zero element of the Lie ring. | |
Multiplicative inverse . | Same as the additive inverse . | |
Group commutator | Same as the Lie bracket . |
The claim is that with these operations, acquires the structure of a 2-powered class two group.
Mutually inverse nature
Further information: Proof of mutual inverse nature of the Baer constructions between group and Lie ring
The two operations described above are two-sided inverses of each other. Explicitly:
- If we start with a Baer Lie group, construct its Baer Lie ring, and then construct the Baer Lie group of that, we return to the original Baer Lie group. In symbols, for any Baer Lie group .
- If we start with a Baer Lie ring, construct its Baer Lie group, and then construct the Baer Lie ring of that, we return to the original Baer Lie ring. In symbols, for any Baer Lie ring .
Functoriality and isomorphism of categories
Given a homomorphism of groups of Baer Lie groups, we can define a homomorphism of Baer Lie rings between their corresponding Baer Lie rings, such that both homomorphisms are the same as set maps.
Similarly, for a homomorphism of Baer Lie rings, we can define a homomorphism between the corresponding Baer Lie groups.
Thus, and can be viewed as functors. Explicitly, the two categories of interest are:
- The category of Baer Lie groups: This is the full subcategory of the category of groups whose objects are the Baer Lie groups. Here, full subcategory means that every morphism in the bigger category between two objects in the subcategory is also in the subcategory. In this case, it means that every group homomorphism between Baer Lie groups is a morphism in the subcategory.
- The category of Baer Lie rings: This is the full subcategory of the category of Lie rings whose objects are the Baer Lie rings.
The functors are as follows:
- defines a functor from the category of Baer Lie groups to the category of Baer Lie rings.
- defines a functor from the category of Baer Lie rings to the category of Baer Lie groups.
The functors are two-sided inverses of each other, i.e., is the identity functor of the ctegory of Baer Lie rings and is the identity functor of the category of Baer Lie groups. Thus, the two categories are isomorphic categories. This isomorphism type of category is termed the Baer Lie category.
Baer correspondence up to isomorphism
A Baer correspondence up to isomorphism between a Baer Lie group and a Baer Lie ring can be defined using the following equivalent data:
- An isomorphism of groups from to .
- An isomorphism of Lie rings from to .
The Baer correspondence up to isomorphism is often described by specifying the set map from the underlying set of to the underlying set of , or the set map from the underlying set of to the underlying set of . Somewhat confusingly, those set maps are referred to as and respectively, i.e., and are the set maps. Note that this use of notation differs somewhat from the use of and as functors above.
Conceptual interpretation
Analogy with center and radius, or mean and mean deviation
Suppose . The arithmetic mean of and is and the mean deviation is . Explicitly, and are the endpoints of the interval with center and radius . The diameter is .
We can do something similar with geometric means. For positive reals, the geometric mean is and the geometric deviation is or (depending on how you measure it).
We can understand the construction of the Lie ring similarly. The idea is that we have a group with a (possibly) noncommutative multiplication. We want to separate out the "commutative" part of the multiplication (which we store as the addition of the Lie ring) from the "noncommutative" part of the multiplication (which we store as the Lie bracket of the Lie ring). Explicitly, noting that and commute on account of the class being two, we get the following:
- The commutative part of the multiplication can be thought of as obtained by "averaging" out both products. Explicitly, is the geometric mean of and , i.e., it is the unique central value such that . If we work out the formula for this, we obtain that it is . Note that we can alternatively describe it as .
- The noncommutative part of the multiplication can be thought of as the quotient of and , which is given as the group commutator
Twisted product
The Lie ring addition can also be defined as follows:
This is a special case of the twisted multiplication of a 2-powered group.
Interpretation in terms of splitting of short exact sequence
Induced correspondences on subgroups
Consider a Baer Lie group and corresponding Baer Lie ring .
Correspondence between subgroups and subrings
In general, Baer Lie property is not subgroup-closed, because the condition of being 2-powered (i.e., uniquely 2-divisible) is not inherited by subgroups. However, by restricting to the 2-powered case, the Baer correspondence gives a correspondence:
2-powered subgroups (Baer Lie subgroups) of 2-powered subrings (Baer Lie subrings) of
Specifically, a subset that is a 2-powered subgroup under the group structure is a 2-powered subring under the Lie ring structure.
A slightly more general correspondence is obtained by noting that the Baer correspondence generalizes to the LUCS-Baer correspondence, so we get:
Subgroups where every element of its derived subgroup has a (unique) square root in its center (LUCS-Baer Lie subgroups) Subrings where every element of the derived subring has a (unique) half in its center (LUCS-Baer Lie subrings)
This generalized correspondence includes the correspondence between Baer Lie subgroups and Baer Lie subrings, and also includes the correspondence between abelian subgroups and abelian Lie subrings.
Among the generalizations discussed at generalized Baer correspondence, only the LUCS-Baer correspondence and the UCS-Baer correspondence improve generality when already restricted to subgroups of Baer Lie groups. The UCS-Baer correspondence is intermediate between the Baer correspondence and the LUCS-Baer correspondence, and therefore offers an intermediate level of coverage. The other generalizations primarily add generality by covering cases where the group has 2-torsion, but this will not occur inside subgroups of Baer Lie groups.
In the special case that is finite, or even periodic (every element has finite order), the Baer correspondence (or any of its generalizations) covers all subgroups and all subrings, and we get:
Subgroups of Subrings of
Correspondence between normal subgroups and ideals
The correspondence between 2-powered subgroups and 2-powered subrings can be restricted to the case of normal subgroups and ideals. We get:
2-powered normal subgroups of 2-powered ideals of
The LUCS-Baer correspondence generalization helps us cover more subgroups and subrings, and we get a larger correspondence:
Normal subgroups where every element of its derived subgroup has a (unique) square root in its center (LUCS-Baer Lie subgroups) Ideals where every element of the derived subring has a (unique) half in its center (LUCS-Baer Lie subrings)
In particular, this generalization covers both the case of 2-powered normal subgroups (respectively, 2-powered ideals) and the case of abelian normal subgroups (respectively, abelian ideals).
In the special case that is finite, or even periodic (every element has finite order), the Baer correspondence (or any of its generalizations) covers all subgroups and all subrings, and we get:
Normal subgroups of Ideals of
Correspondence between characteristic subgroups and characteristic subrings (the same as characteristic ideals)
The Baer correspondence gives a correspondence:
Characteristic 2-powered subgroups of Characteristic 2-powered subrings of = Characteristic 2-powered ideals of
Since characteristic implies normal on the group side, we can equate characteristic 2-powered subrings and characteristic 2-powered ideals on the Lie ring side. Note that, for Lie rings in general, characteristic not implies ideal, but the collapse in this case follows from the Baer correspondence.
In the special case that is finite, or even periodic (every element has finite order), the Baer correspondence (or any of its generalizations) covers all subgroups and all subrings, and we get:
Characteristic subgroups of Characteristic subrings of = Characteristic ideals of
Correspondence between twisted subgroups and subgroups of additive group of Lie ring
Further information: Baer correspondence establishes a correspondence between 2-powered twisted subgroups of the group and 2-powered subgroups of additive group of the Lie ring
The Baer correspondence induces a correspondence:
2-powered twisted subgroups of 2-powered additive subgroups of
The correspondence arises as a result of the twisted multiplication of a 2-powered group.
Examples
In the case of an abelian group, the corresponding Lie ring is an abelian Lie ring and the additive group of the Lie ring coincides with the original abelian group. In other words, abelian groups correspond to abelian Lie rings.
Groups of prime-cube order
The behavior is the same for all odd primes for groups of order .
Group | GAP ID (second part) | Lie ring | Additive group of Lie ring | Description of Baer correspondence |
---|---|---|---|---|
unitriangular matrix group:UT(3,p) | 3 | niltriangular matrix Lie ring:NT(3,p) | elementary abelian group of prime-cube order | Baer correspondence between UT(3,p) and NT(3,p) |
semidirect product of cyclic group of prime-square order and cyclic group of prime order | 4 | (insert name) | direct product of cyclic group of prime-square order and cyclic group of prime order | (insert link) |
Groups of prime-fourth order
We first consider groups of order .
Group | GAP ID (second part) | Lie ring | Additive group of Lie ring | Description of Baer correspondence |
---|---|---|---|---|
SmallGroup(81,3) | 3 | (insert link) | direct product of Z9 and E9 | (insert link) |
semidirect product of Z9 and Z9 | 4 | (insert link) | direct product of Z9 and Z9 | (insert link) |
semidirect product of Z27 and Z3 | 6 | (insert link) | direct product of Z27 and Z3 | (insert link) |
direct product of prime-cube order group:U(3,3) and Z3 | 12 | (insert link) | elementary abelian group:E81 | (insert link) |
direct product of semidirect product of Z9 and Z3 and Z3 | 13 | (insert link) | direct product of Z9 and E9 | (insert link) |
central product of prime-cube order group:U(3,3) and Z9 | 14 | (insert link) | direct product of Z9 and E9 | (insert link) |
Generalizations
There are four kinds of generalizations:
- 2-local Baer correspondence: Generalization to structures other than groups and Lie rings, also relaxing nilpotency class two to 2-local nilpotency class two.
- Generalized Baer correspondence: Generalization to situations where both the group and the Lie ring has nilpotency class two but neither of them is 2-powered.
- Lazard correspondence: Generalization to situations of higher nilpotency class, but with the requirement of unique -divisibility for all primes up to and including the (3-local) nilpotency class.
- Baer correspondence up to isoclinism
References
- Groups with Abelian Central Quotient Group by Reinhold Baer, Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, Volume 44,Number 3, Page 357 - 386(November 1938): ^{Gated PDF (JSTOR)}^{More info}