# Subgroup structure of groups of order 81

From Groupprops

This article gives specific information, namely, subgroup structure, about a family of groups, namely: groups of order 81.

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FACTS TO CHECK AGAINST FOR SUBGROUP STRUCTURE: (group of prime power order)

Lagrange's theorem (order of subgroup times index of subgroup equals order of whole group, so all subgroups have prime power orders)|order of quotient group divides order of group (and equals index of corresponding normal subgroup, so all quotients have prime power orders)

prime power order implies not centerless | prime power order implies nilpotent | prime power order implies center is normality-large

size of conjugacy class of subgroups divides index of center

congruence condition on number of subgroups of given prime power order: The total number of subgroups of any fixed prime power order is congruent to 1 mod the prime.

## Numerical information on counts of subgroups by order

### Number of subgroups per order

Due to congruence condition on number of subgroups of given prime power order, all the counts of subgroups, as well as of normal subgroups, are congruent to 1 modulo 3. Further, note the following:

- For an abelian group, the number of subgroups of a given order equals the number of normal subgroups. Moreover, because subgroup lattice and quotient lattice of finite abelian group are isomorphic, we get that (number of subgroups of order 3) = (number of normal subgroups of order 3) = (number of subgroups of order 27) = (number of normal subgroups of order 27), and separately, (number of subgroups of order 9) = (number of normal subgroups of order 9).
- Since prime power order implies nilpotent, and nilpotent implies every maximal subgroup is normal, we have, in all cases, that the number of subgroups of order 27 = number of normal subgroups of order 27.
- The subgroups of order 27 (all of which are normal) correspond to the maximal subgroups of the Frattini quotient, which is an elementary abelian group of order where is the minimum size of generating set for the group. The number of such subgroups is , and hence must be one of the numbers 1,4,13,40.
- The
*normal*subgroups of order 3 correspond precisely to the subgroups of order 3 in the socle, which is an elementary abelian subgroup defined as of the center. If the socle has order , the number of normal subgroups of order 3 is . See minimal normal implies central in nilpotent. Thus, the count of normal subgroups of order 3 must be 1, 4, 13, or 40. Moroever, for a*non*-abelian group, the socle can have order either 3 or 9 (cannot have order 27 or 81) so the number of normal subgroups is either 1 or 3.

Common name for group | Second part of GAP ID (GAP ID is (p^4, second part)) | Nilpotency class | Number of subgroups of order 3 | Number of normal subgroups of order 3 | Number of subgroups of order 9 | Number of normal subgroups of order 9 | Number of subgroups of order 27 | Number of normal subgroups of order 27 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Cyclic group:Z81 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

Direct product of Z9 and Z9 | 2 | 1 | 4 | 4 | 13 | 13 | 4 | 4 |

SmallGroup(81,3) | 3 | 2 | 13 | 4 | 22 | 4 | 4 | 4 |

Nontrivial semidirect product of Z9 and Z9 | 4 | 2 | 4 | 4 | 13 | 4 | 4 | 4 |

Direct product of Z27 and Z3 | 5 | 1 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 |

M81 | 6 | 2 | 4 | 1 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 |

Wreath product of Z3 and Z3 | 7 | 3 | 22 | 1 | 22 | 1 | 4 | 4 |

SmallGroup(81,8) | 8 | 3 | 13 | 1 | 13 | 1 | 4 | 4 |

SmallGroup(81,9) | 9 | 3 | 31 | 1 | 13 | 1 | 4 | 4 |

SmallGroup(81,10) | 10 | 3 | 4 | 1 | 13 | 1 | 4 | 4 |

Direct product of Z9 and E9 | 11 | 1 | 13 | 13 | 22 | 22 | 13 | 13 |

Direct product of prime-cube order group:U(3,3) and Z3 | 12 | 2 | 40 | 4 | 49 | 13 | 13 | 13 |

Direct product of semidirect product of Z9 and Z3 and Z3 | 13 | 2 | 13 | 4 | 22 | 13 | 13 | 13 |

Central product of prime-cube order group:U(3,3) and Z9 | 14 | 2 | 13 | 1 | 13 | 13 | 13 | 13 |

Elementary abelian group:E81 | 15 | 1 | 40 | 40 | 130 | 130 | 40 | 40 |

## Abelian subgroups

### Counts of abelian subgroups and abelian normal subgroups

Note the following:

- Congruence condition on number of subgroups of given prime power order tells us that for any fixed order, the number of subgroups is congruent to 1 mod 3. Since the non-normal subgroups occur in conjugacy classes whose size is a nontrivial power of 3, the number of normal subgroups is congruent to 1 mod32. In particular, for orders 3 and 9, since every subgroup of that order is abelian anyway, the congruence condition tells us that the number of abelian subgroups is congruent to 1 mod 3, and so is the number of abelian normal subgroups.
- Congruence condition on number of abelian subgroups of prime-cube order and existence of abelian normal subgroups of small prime power order: This gives us that the number of abelian subgroups of order 27 is congruent to 1 mod 3 (i.e., it is odd). Hence, the number of abelian normal subgroups of order 8 is also congruent to 1 mod 3 (i.e., it is odd).

The upshot is that all counts in the table below are odd.

- Prime power order implies nilpotent and nilpotent implies every maximal subgroup is normal, so all the abelian subgroups of order 27 are normal. Thus the count for abelian subgroups of order 8 is the same as the count for abelian normal subgroups of order 27.
- For the abelian groups: note that abelian implies every subgroup is normal and also that subgroup lattice and quotient lattice of finite abelian group are isomorphic. Thus, when the whole group is abelian, we have: number of abelian subgroups of order 3 = number of abelian normal subgroups of order 3 = number of abelian subgroups of order 27 = number of abelian normal subgroups of order 27. Separately, we have number of abelian subgroups of order 9 = number of abelian normal subgroups of order 9.

Common name for group | Second part of GAP ID (GAP ID is (p^4, second part)) | Nilpotency class | Number of abelian subgroups of order 3 | Number of abelian normal subgroups of order 3 | Number of abelian subgroups of order 9 | Number of abelian normal subgroups of order 9 | Number of abelian subgroups of order 27 | Number of abelian normal subgroups of order 27 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Cyclic group:Z81 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

Direct product of Z9 and Z9 | 2 | 1 | 4 | 4 | 13 | 13 | 4 | 4 |

SmallGroup(81,3) | 3 | 2 | 13 | 4 | 22 | 4 | 4 | 4 |

Nontrivial semidirect product of Z9 and Z9 | 4 | 2 | 4 | 4 | 13 | 4 | 4 | 4 |

Direct product of Z27 and Z3 | 5 | 1 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 |

M81 | 6 | 2 | 4 | 1 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 |

Wreath product of Z3 and Z3 | 7 | 3 | 22 | 1 | 22 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

SmallGroup(81,8) | 8 | 3 | 13 | 1 | 13 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

SmallGroup(81,9) | 9 | 3 | 31 | 1 | 13 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

SmallGroup(81,10) | 10 | 3 | 4 | 1 | 13 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

Direct product of Z9 and E9 | 11 | 1 | 13 | 13 | 22 | 22 | 13 | 13 |

Direct product of prime-cube order group:U(3,3) and Z3 | 12 | 2 | 40 | 4 | 49 | 13 | 4 | 4 |

Direct product of semidirect product of Z9 and Z3 and Z3 | 13 | 2 | 13 | 4 | 22 | 13 | 4 | 4 |

Central product of prime-cube order group:U(3,3) and Z9 | 14 | 2 | 13 | 1 | 13 | 13 | 4 | 4 |

Elementary abelian group:E81 | 15 | 1 | 40 | 40 | 130 | 130 | 40 | 40 |