Stallings exact sequence
Contents
Definition
General definition
The Stallings exact sequence is a five-term exact sequence associated with any short exact sequence of groups.
Consider a short exact sequence of groups:
The Stallings exact sequence corresponding to this short exact sequence is the following five-term exact sequence:
(Note that the letters used for the morphisms are only being used on this page (and in some of the references) and are not standardized).
Here, the groups and are the respective Schur multipliers for the groups and . The groups and are the respective abelianizations of and .
The maps are as follows:
Homomorphism | Description |
---|---|
We apply the second homology group functor (which is covariant) to the quotient map . | |
We can think of this as the special case of the map described in the central extension setting (see below), once we replace the original short exact sequence by the new short exact sequence . More explicitly, we have a canonical map via the commutator map, and we know that this must send the subgroup (the kernel of the natural map ) to . Performing that restriction gives us the map we want. | |
Note that . The injective map that is part of the original short exact sequence sends the subgroup of inside , and thus induces a map . | |
We apply the first homology group functor, aka the abelianization, to the quotient map |
Particular case of a central extension
Consider a short exact sequence of groups:
where the image of in is a central subgroup of . In this case, the Stallings exact sequence is as follows:
The maps are as follows:
Homomorphism | Description |
---|---|
We apply the second homology group functor (which is covariant) to the quotient map . | |
This is the same as the element of defined at commutator map in central extension defines homomorphism from Schur multiplier of quotient group to central subgroup (note that that page uses the letter for what we call here and the letter for what we call here). This map also appears, albeit more indirectly, in the formula for second cohomology group for trivial group action in terms of Schur multiplier and abelianization. | |
Note that . The map we get is just the composite of the injective map and the quotient map . | |
We apply the first homology group functor, aka the abelianization, to the quotient map . |
Related constructions
- Formula for second cohomology group for trivial group action in terms of Schur multiplier and abelianization: This says a little bit more about the homomorphism in the special case that the extension is a central extension.
- Dual universal coefficients theorem for group cohomology
- Stallings-Stammbach sequence
- Hopf's formula for Schur multiplier
- Ganea sequence
References
Journal references
- Homology and central series of groups by John Stallings, Journal of Algebra, ISSN 00218693, Volume 2, Page 170 - 181(Year 1965): ^{}^{More info}, main theorem, stated on the first page of the paper.
- On the homology theory of central group extensions: I—The commutator map and stem extensions by Beno Eckmann, Peter J. Hilton and Urs Stammbach, Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici, Volume 47,Number 1, Page 102 - 122(Year 1972): ^{Official copy (gated)}^{More info}, (1.3), listed on the first page. This reference also explains (Theorem 2.2) how this is related to the formula for second cohomology group for trivial group action in terms of Schur multiplier and abelianization