# Fourth isomorphism theorem

(Redirected from Correspondence theorem)

## Contents

This article gives the statement, and possibly proof, of a basic fact in group theory.
View a complete list of basic facts in group theory
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## Name

This result is termed the lattice isomorphism theorem, the fourth isomorphism theorem, and the correspondence theorem.

## Statement

### Statement with symbols

Let $G$ be a group and let $N$ be a Normal subgroup (?) of $G$. Then, we have a bijection:

Set of subgroups of $G$ containing $N$ $\leftrightarrow$ Set of subgroups of $G/N$

If $\varphi:G \to G/N$ is the quotient map, then this bijection is given by:

$H \mapsto \varphi(H)$

in the forward direction, and:

$K \mapsto \varphi^{-1}(K)$

in the reverse direction. Moreover:

1. Under the bijection, normality is preserved. In other words, a subgroup containing $N$ is normal if and only if its image under $\varphi$ is normal.
2. The bijection is an isomorphism between the lattice of subgroups of $G$ containing $N$, and the lattice of subgroups of $G/N$. In other words, the bijection preserves partial order: $A \le B$ if and only if $\varphi(A) \le \varphi(B)$. It also preserves intersections and joins.
3. The bijection preserves index. If $A,B$ are subgroups of $G$ containing $N$, with $A \le B$, then $[B:A] = [\varphi(B):\varphi(A)]$.

## References

### Textbook references

• Abstract Algebra by David S. Dummit and Richard M. Foote, 10-digit ISBN 0471433349, 13-digit ISBN 978-0471433347, More info, Page 99, Theorem 20, Section 3.3 (few steps of proof given, but full proof not provided)
• Algebra by Michael Artin, ISBN 0130047635, 13-digit ISBN 978-0130047632, More info, Page 75, Exercise 8, Section 7 (Restriction of a homomorphism to a subgroup) (starred problem, termed Correspondence Problem)