Central factor is transitive

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This article gives the statement, and possibly proof, of a subgroup property (i.e., central factor) satisfying a subgroup metaproperty (i.e., transitive subgroup property)
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Statement

Suppose H \le K \le G are groups such that H is a central factor of K and K is a central factor of G. Then, H is a central factor of G.

Definitions used

Central factor

Further information: Central factor

A subgroup H of a group G is termed a central factor of G if every inner automorphism of G restricts to an inner automorphism of H.

In terms of the function restriction expression, this is expressed as:

Inner automorphism \to Inner automorphism

In other words, every inner automorphism of the whole group restricts to an inner automorphism of the subgroup.

Related facts

Proof

Proof in terms of the function restriction expression

Further information: Balanced implies transitive

The property of being a central factor is a balanced subgroup property in terms of the function restriction formalism: it has a function restriction expression where both sides are equal (in this case, equal to the property of being an inner automorphism). Any balanced subgroup property is transitive, and thus, the property of being a central factor is transitive.

Hands-on proof

Given: Groups H \le K \le G such that H is a central factor of K and K is a central factor of G.

To prove: H is a central factor of G.

Proof: We need to show that any inner automorphism of G restricts to an inner automorphism of H. Suppose \sigma is an inner automorphism of G.

Since K is a central factor of G, \sigma restricts to an inner automorphism, say \sigma', of K. Further, since H is a central factor of K, \sigma' restricts to an inner automorphism of H, say \sigma''.

Clearly, \sigma'' is also the restriction of \sigma to H, so \sigma restricts to an inner automorphism of H.