Euler-phi function is multiplicative if coprime

From Groupprops
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about a fact in number theory that has a direct proof using group theory.


Verbal statement

The Euler-phi function is multiplicative on coprime natural numbers.

Statement with symbols

For any natural numbers m,n that are coprime to each other, \varphi(mn)=\varphi(m)\varphi(n).



coprime positive integers

To prove: \varphi(mn)=\varphi(m)\varphi(n) Proof: Consider a finite cyclic group G of order mn. Denote by A,B,C the set of all elements in G that have orders m,n,mn respectively. We will show that |C|=|A||B|.
Define a map \phi : A \times B \rightarrow C by \phi((g,h))=gh. Since the order of g and h are coprime, and G is abelian, their product gh must have order mn, so this map is well-defined. If 
\phi((g_1,h_1))=\phi((g_2,h_2)) then g_1h_1=g_2h_2, or equivalently, g_2^{-1}g_1=h_2h_1^{-1}. They are elements of subgroups of coprime orders that must intersect trivially. So, g_1=g_2 and h_1=h_2, the map is injective. Thus, |A \times B| \le |C|.
Define another map \psi : C \rightarrow A \times B by \psi(k)=(k^{n},k^{m}). If \psi(k)=\psi(l) then k^{n}=l^{n} and k ^ m = l ^ m. Suppose k=ul. Then k ^ m = u ^ m l ^ m = u ^ m k ^ m. Therefore u ^ m = e. Similarly, u ^ n = e. So, m and n must have a common divisor which is the order of u. Thus, u=e. Hence our map is again injective, so |C| \le |A \times B|.
Therefore, |C|=|A \times B|=|A||B|, as desired.