Special linear group:SL(2,3)
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- 1 Definition
- 2 Arithmetic functions
- 3 Group properties
- 4 Elements
- 5 Endomorphisms
- 6 Subgroups
- 7 Supergroups
- 8 Subgroup-defining functions
- 9 Quotient-defining functions
- 10 GAP implementation
The special linear group is defined in the following equivalent ways:
- It is the special linear group of degree two over a field of three elements. In other words, it is the group of matrices with determinant over the field of three elements.
- It is the double cover of alternating group , i.e., it is the double cover of alternating group:A4.
- It is a binary von Dyck group with the parameters , i.e., it has the presentation:
It is a group of order .
Arithmetic functions of a counting nature
|number of subgroups||15|
|number of conjugacy classes||7|
|number of conjugacy classes of subgroups||7|
|Solvable group||Yes||Length three, commutator subgroup is the quaternion group, next commutator subgroup is center.|
|Monolithic group||Yes||The center of order two is the unique minimal normal subgroup.|
|One-headed group||Yes||The commutator subgroup, which is a quaternion group|
|Group having subgroups of all orders dividing the group order||No|
Further information: element structure of special linear group:SL(2,3)
Note that since we are over field:F3, , so all the s below can be rewritten as s.
COMBINATORIAL BREAKDOWN TABLE: The table below breaks down a collection into various classes or types and provides information on the counts for each type. For some of the columns, totals provide a sanity check that all elements or classes have been accounted for. In this case, the table gives information on conjugacy class structure.
|Conjugacy class representative||Conjugacy class size||List of all elements of conjugacy class||Order of elements in conjugacy class|
|Total||24 (order of the group)||--||--|
COMBINATORIAL BREAKDOWN TABLE: The table below breaks down a collection into various classes or types and provides information on the counts for each type. For some of the columns, totals provide a sanity check that all elements or classes have been accounted for. In this case, the table gives information on automorphism class structure.
Below are the orbits under the action of the automorphism group, i.e., the automorphism classes of elements of the group.
|List of representatives for each conjugacy class in the automorphism class||Number of conjugacy classes in the automorphism class||Size of each conjugacy class||Automorphism class size||Order of elements in conjugacy class|
|Total||7 (number of conjugacy classes)||--||24 (order of the group)||--|
The automorphism group of is isomorphic to the symmetric group of degree four. The inner automorphism group, which is the quotient of by its center, and is also the projective special linear group , is isomorphic to the alternating group of degree four.
To see how the outer automorphisms act, we can view as a subgroup of index two in , the general linear group of order two over the field of three elements. Every automorphism of this group is inner, and the inner automorphism group, which is , is isomorphic to the symmetric group of degree four. Since is a normal subgroup, and since its center equals the center of , the automorphisms of all restrict to automorphisms of . has no other automorphisms.
Further information: Subgroup structure of special linear group:SL(2,3)
|number of subgroups||15|
|number of conjugacy classes of subgroups||7|
|number of automorphism classes of subgroups||7|
|isomorphism classes of Sylow subgroups, corresponding fusion systems, and Sylow numbers|| 2-Sylow: quaternion group (order 8) as Q8 in SL(2,3) with its non-inner fusion system (see non-inner fusion system for quaternion group), Sylow number 1|
3-Sylow: cyclic group:Z3 with its non-inner fusion system, Sylow number 4
|Hall subgroups||The order has only two prime divisors, so no possibility of Hall subgroups other than trivial subgroup, whole group, and Sylow subgroups|
|maximal subgroups||There are maximal subgroups of orders 6 (Z6 in SL(2,3)) and 8 (2-Sylow subgroup of special linear group:SL(2,3))|
|normal subgroups||There are two proper nontrivial normal subgroups: center of special linear group:SL(2,3) and 2-Sylow subgroup of special linear group:SL(2,3)|
Table classifying subgroups up to automorphism
Note that, in the matrices, -1 can be written as 2 since elements are taken modulo 3.
|Automorphism class of subgroups||Representative subgroup||Isomorphism class||Order of subgroups||Index of subgroups||Number of conjugacy classes (=1 iff automorph-conjugate subgroup)||Size of each conjugacy class (=1 iff normal subgroup)||Total number of subgroups (=1 iff characteristic subgroup)||Isomorphism class of quotient (if exists)||Subnormal depth (if subnormal)||Note|
|trivial subgroup||trivial group||1||24||1||1||1||special linear group:SL(2,3)||1||trivial|
|center of special linear group:SL(2,3)||cyclic group:Z2||2||12||1||1||1||alternating group:A4||1|
|Z4 in SL(2,3)||cyclic group:Z4||4||6||1||3||3||--||2|
|2-Sylow subgroup of special linear group:SL(2,3)||quaternion group||8||3||1||1||1||cyclic group:Z3||1||2-Sylow|
|Z3 in SL(2,3)||cyclic group:Z3||3||8||1||4||4||--||--||3-Sylow|
|Z6 in SL(2,3)||cyclic group:Z6||6||4||1||4||4||--||--||3-Sylow normalizer|
|whole group||all elements||special linear group:SL(2,3)||24||1||1||1||1||trivial group||0|
|Total (7 rows)||--||--||--||--||7||--||15||--||--||--|
The special linear group is a subgroup of the general linear group . It is also a subgroup of for any prime power (note that need not be a power of ). For full proof, refer: SL(2,3) is a subgroup of any special linear group, Dickson's theorem
|Subgroup-defining function||Subgroup type in list||Isomorphism class||Comment|
|Commutator subgroup||(6)||Quaternion group|
|Frattini subgroup||(2)||Cyclic group:Z2|
|Fitting subgroup||(6)||Quaternion group|
|Quotient-defining function||Isomorphism class||Comment|
|Inner automorphism group||alternating group:A4||Quotient by the center, which is cyclic of order two.|
|Abelianization||cyclic group:Z3||Quotient by the quaternion group of order eight.|
|Frattini quotient||alternating group:A4|
|Fitting quotient||cyclic group:Z3|
This finite group has order 24 and has ID 3 among the groups of order 24 in GAP's SmallGroup library. For context, there are 15 groups of order 24. It can thus be defined using GAP's SmallGroup function as:
For instance, we can use the following assignment in GAP to create the group and name it :
gap> G := SmallGroup(24,3);
Conversely, to check whether a given group is in fact the group we want, we can use GAP's IdGroup function:
IdGroup(G) = [24,3]
or just do:
to have GAP output the group ID, that we can then compare to what we want.
Other ways of defining it are as follows:
- It can also be defined as a special linear group:
- It can be defined using the presentation (here, is isomorphic to ):
F := FreeGroup(3); G := F/[F.1^3*F.2^(-3), F.2^3*F.3^(-2), F.1^3*(F.1*F.2*F.3)^(-1)];