Finite group having at least two conjugacy classes of involutions has order less than the cube of the maximum of orders of centralizers of involutions
Suppose is a finite group such that there are at least two conjugacy classes of involutions (non-identity elements of order two) in . Then, if is the maximum of the orders of all subgroups of that arise as a Centralizer of involution (?), we have:
- Dihedral trick
- Every finite group of even order has a proper subgroup of order greater than the cuberoot of the order
- Finite simple non-abelian group has order greater than product of order of proper subgroup and its centralizer
- Finite group having exactly one conjugacy class of involutions need not have order less than the cube of the order of the centralizer of involution
- Involutions are either conjugate or have an involution centralizing both of them
- Group acts as automorphisms by conjugation
- Fundamental theorem of group actions
Given: A group with at least two conjugacy classes of involutions. is the maximum possible order of a subgroup arising as the centralizer of an involution of .
To prove: .
- Let be an involution of such that has order and let . Note that exists by the definition of .
- Let be an involution of that is not conjugate to and let : Note that exists because of the assumption that there are at least two conjugacy classes of involutions.
- Let be distinct involutions of , and define . In particular, .
- : because the are all distinct elements of . because is a centralizer of involution and by definition, is the maximum of the orders of such subgroups.
- The number of distinct non-identity elements in is less than : Each has at most non-identity elements, and there are of them, with . So, the total number of elements is less than .
- Suppose has a total of conjugates . Then, each is contained in the union : Any is conjugate to . Since by assumption is not conjugate to , is not conjugate to . Thus, by fact (1), there exists an involution centralizing both and . This involution lives in so it is some . Thus, for some .
- : This follows from the previous two steps.
- : First, note that under the action of the group on itself by conjugation, the centralizer of is its stabilizer, so by fact (3), the coset space of in is in bijection with the conjugacy class of . Thus, . By fact (4) (Lagrange's theorem), we get . Since by the previous step, we get .