# Ascendant subgroup

This article defines a subgroup property: a property that can be evaluated to true/false given a group and a subgroup thereof, invariant under subgroup equivalence. View a complete list of subgroup properties[SHOW MORE]
If the ambient group is a finite group, this property is equivalent to the property: subnormal subgroup
View other properties finitarily equivalent to subnormal subgroup | View other variations of subnormal subgroup |
This is a variation of subnormality|Find other variations of subnormality |

## Definition

### Symbol-free definition

A subgroup of a group is said to be ascendant if there is an ascending series of subgroups indexed by ordinals, each normal in the next, that starts at the given subgroup, and terminates at the whole group.

### Definition with symbols

A subgroup $H$ of a group $G$ is termed ascendant if we have a series $H_\alpha$ for every ordinal $\alpha$ such that:

• $H_0 = H$
• $H_\alpha \ \underline{\triangleleft} \ H_{\alpha + 1}$ (viz $H_\alpha$ is a normal subgroup of $H_{\alpha + 1}$)
• If $\alpha$ is a limit ordinal, then $H_\alpha = \langle H_\gamma \rangle_{\gamma < \alpha}$, i.e., it is the join of all preceding subgroups.

and such that there is some ordinal $\beta$ such that $H_\beta = G$.

### In terms of the ascendant closure operator

The subgroup property of being an ascendant subgroup is obtained by applying the ascendant closure operator to the subgroup property of being normal.

## Metaproperties

### Transitivity

This subgroup property is transitive: a subgroup with this property in a subgroup with this property, also has this property in the whole group.
ABOUT THIS PROPERTY: View variations of this property that are transitive | View variations of this property that are not transitive
ABOUT TRANSITIVITY: View a complete list of transitive subgroup properties|View a complete list of facts related to transitivity of subgroup properties |Read a survey article on proving transitivity

An ascendant subgroup of an ascendant subgroup is ascendant. The proof relies on simply concatenating the two ascending series.

### Trimness

This subgroup property is trim -- it is both trivially true (true for the trivial subgroup) and identity-true (true for a group as a subgroup of itself).
View other trim subgroup properties | View other trivially true subgroup properties | View other identity-true subgroup properties

Thetrivial subgroup and the whole group are both normal subgroups, hence they are also both ascendant subgroups.

### Intermediate subgroup condition

YES: This subgroup property satisfies the intermediate subgroup condition: if a subgroup has the property in the whole group, it has the property in every intermediate subgroup.
ABOUT THIS PROPERTY: View variations of this property satisfying intermediate subgroup condition | View variations of this property not satisfying intermediate subgroup condition
ABOUT INTERMEDIATE SUBROUP CONDITION:View all properties satisfying intermediate subgroup condition | View facts about intermediate subgroup condition

Any ascendant subgroup of a group is also ascendant in every intermediate subgroup. The proof of this follows by intersecting every member of the ascending series with the intermediate subgroup and observing that normality at each stage is preserved.

### Intersection-closedness

YES: This subgroup property is intersection-closed: an arbitrary (nonempty) intersection of subgroups with this property, also has this property.
ABOUT THIS PROPERTY: View variations of this property that are intersection-closed | View variations of this property that are not intersection-closed
ABOUT INTERSECTION-CLOSEDNESS: View all intersection-closed subgroup properties (or, strongly intersection-closed properties) | View all subgroup properties that are not intersection-closed | Read a survey article on proving intersection-closedness | Read a survey article on disproving intersection-closedness

An arbitrary intersection of ascendant subgroups is ascendant. This again follows by intersecting the ascending series for each subgroup.